Cortex X1 Chipset Review, Features & Performance Benchmark

Cortex X1 Chipset Review, Features & Performance Benchmark

#program    #design   

The Cortex – X1 was designed within the frame of a new program at Arm, which the company calls the Cortex – X Custom Program .

The Cortex – X Custom ( CXC ) Program is essentially an evolution of the Built – on – Cortex program.

The custom refers to Arm’s customization of their roadmap CPU cores – the design is still very much built by Arm themselves and they deliver the IP.

The chip is a result of ARM’s Cortex – X Custom ( CXC ) program and wholly deviated from ARM’s philosophy of trying to balance performance, power and space occupied.

As per ARM, the Cortex – X1 CPU marks the beginning of a new Cortex – X Custom program that will allow partner brands to work with ARM’s team for designing custom CPUs based on their demand.

#improvement    #core   

It brings 30 percent peak performance improvements over Arm Cortex – A77 CPU and 22 % over the just – announced Cortex – A78 core.

Also, for the first time, they ‘ve introduced extra – performance cores i.e. Cortex – X1 core developed out of its new Cortex – X Custom Program.

At 30 % better peak performance compared to the Cortex – A77 core, the X1 is now the de facto flagship core.

Moving on to the Cortex – X1, which is a new custom line of CPU cores that are all about performance.

The ARM Cortex – A78 CPU is claimed to bring a 20 % sustained performance improvement over the previous – gen ARM Cortex – A77 CPU.

#core    #nm    #node    #process   

Note that these performance increases also include the benefit of the 5 nm process node, over the 7 nm process node used on the current Cortex – A77-based SoCs.

It assumes the new core uses cutting – edge 5 nm process technology, while the A77 is made using 7 nm silicon.

ARM said that a Cortex – A78 core running at 3GHz would deliver 20 percent more sustained, single – core performance than the Cortex – A77 core running at 2.6GHz, assuming 1 watt per core.

These Cortex – A78 cores will be made out of 5 nm fabrication nodes, enabling greater performance with lower power requirements.

The Cortex A78 cores move to a 5 nm process node which helps improve not only the efficiency numbers but also those of performance and even the area taken up by the core within the processor die.

#Apple    #series    #chips    #computing   

Qualcomm’s Snapdragon chips and Apple’s A – series chips have different structures and performance but they’re all based on Arm’s designs.

For the first time since 2013 and the Apple A7, ARM will be able to get close to Apple’s A – series chips in terms of peak performance.

Apple’s A – series chips are big and wide, as the decode width of all A – series chips since the A11 has been 7-wide, which is wider than even desktop CPU architectures.

But Apple extensively customises what are called computing cores on its chips, while many Android devices hew more closely to designs developed and sold by ARM itself.

With the announcement of the Duo, ARM is taking serious swings at the likes of Apple’s A – series bionic processors.

#Qualcomm    #Snapdragon    #Samsung    #Exynos   

The report also aligns with reports that Google is dropping Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 865 this year, either in favor of a mid – range chip from Qualcomm, or a semi – custom collaboration with Samsung.

Notably, Samsung is in a strong position to adopt the Cortex – X1 + Cortex – A78 as part of the next flagship Exynos SoC, which will succeed the Exynos 990.

So while Samsung and Qualcomm may both use Arm Cortex – X cores in their upcoming chipsets, the performance and power efficiency metrics might be quite significantly different.

The timing is absolutely right for Samsung after the controversy caused by the variation in performance of Qualcomm Snapdragon 865 variants of its flagship Galaxy S20 range and those powered by its semi – custom in – house Exynos 990 design.

#product    #targeted    #company   

While the first product in the CXC program is targeted toward multiple unnamed customers, future products could be targeted toward individual customers.

These design targets are the bread & butter of Arm as the company has an incredible range of customers who aim for very different product use – cases – some favoring performance while some other have cost as their top priority.

Here, Arm proclaims that it allows customers to customize and differentiate their products more; but the real gist of it is that the company now has the resources to finally do what some of its lead customers have been requesting for years.

The move is not only surprising, but marks an extremely important divergence in Arm’s business model and design methodology, finally addressing some of the company’s years – long product line compromises.

#Mali    #GPU    #said    #supports  

It is accompanied by the high – end Mali – G78 GPU and the slightly less powerful Mali – G68 GPU.

Like the Mali – G77 GPU, Mali – G78 has Arm’s Valhall architecture, but is said to deliver 25 % more graphics performance.

Now for this year, ARM has announced the ARM Cortex – A78 CPU architecture and the Mali – G78 GPU, the successors of the Cortex – A77 CPU, and the Mali – G77 GPU respectively.

The Mali – G78 is said to offer a 25 % increase over predecessors in graphics and supports a line of 24 cores.

Based on the new Valhall architecture, the Mali – G78 GPU is said to offer a 25 % performance improvement, 15 % performance density improvement, and 10 % higher energy efficiency for gaming content over the Mali – G77 GPU.

#cache    #MOP    #bandwidth    #cycle   

For the Cortex – A78, Arm increased the decode bandwidth by 1.25x to 5 instructions per cycle from the instruction cache and by 1.33x to eight MOPs per cycle when fetching from the MOP cache.

On top of this, ARM’s new design has also boosted its MOP cache throughput by 33 %, delivering 8Mops per cycle.

On the execution engine side of the machine, the dispatch bandwidth was also increased by 1.33x to match the bandwidth of the MOP cache – allowing for up to eight MOPs / cycle to be dispatched.

Like other high – end ARM cores, the X1 converts native ARM instructions into macro – operations ( MOPs ), and the X1 can dispatch up to 8 MOPs per cycle, compared to the 6 MOPs / cycle for A77 / A78.

Cortex X1 Features Part 2

#Mali    #CPUs    #GPU    #chips    #GPUs   

Let us have a look at the features and performance claims of Cortex – A78 and Cortex – X1 CPUs, as well as Mali – G68 and Mali – G78 GPUs.

In the smartphone industry, ARM designs its Cortex CPUs, Mali GPUs, and Ethos machine – learning processors, then licenses them to companies like Qualcomm.

Now for this year, ARM has announced the ARM Cortex – A78 CPU architecture and the Mali – G78 GPU, the successors of the Cortex – A77 CPU, and the Mali – G77 GPU respectively.

The company also saw opportunities in graphics chips as mobile phones became capable video players and gaming machines, so it designed Mali graphics chips for the embedded device market.

Those who are familiar with Arm know that, like clockwork every year, the company announces new capabilities for its Cortex CPUs, Mali GPUs and, most recently Ethos NPUs ( neural processing units ).

#Mali    #GPU    #features   

It is accompanied by the high – end Mali – G78 GPU and the slightly less powerful Mali – G68 GPU.

Essentially, ARM is naming the GPU as Mali – G68 if it has six or lower cores, and as Mali – G78 if it has seven or more GPU cores.

The Mali – G68 inherits all the features of the Mali – G78 but supports fewer core designs and is both smaller and more efficient.

There’s also a new sub – premium Mali – G68 GPU with many of the same features as Mali – G78 but limited to 6 cores for lower costs and power consumption.

Like the Mali – G77 GPU, Mali – G78 has Arm’s Valhall architecture, but is said to deliver 25 % more graphics performance.

#SoC    #Exynos    #Samsung    #flagship   

Notably, Samsung is in a strong position to adopt the Cortex – X1 + Cortex – A78 as part of the next flagship Exynos SoC, which will succeed the Exynos 990.

The Cortex – A76, for example, is used in flagship SoCs as well as in some lower mid – range SoCs.

Samsung also provides Cortex – A57-based SoC ‘s, the first one being Exynos Octa 5433 which was available for sampling from Q4 2014.

While the Cortex – A78 CPU offers an iterative improvement over last year’s Cortex – A77, the Cortex – X1 CPU provides a generational leap and could help plug the performance gap between Android and iOS smartphones.

We are only now seeing products hit the scene with the Cortex – A77 based on the latest process nodes from TSMC, Samsung, and others.

#percent    #cluster    #running   

ARM said that a Cortex – A78 core running at 3GHz would deliver 20 percent more sustained, single – core performance than the Cortex – A77 core running at 2.6GHz, assuming 1 watt per core.

The DynamIQ cluster of 4x Cortex – A78 and 4x Cortex – A55 cores provides 20 % sustained performance improvements over the 4x Cortex – A77 and 4x Cortex – A55 cluster.

ARM claims that Cortex – A78 cores are up to 50 percent more power – efficient when compared to Cortex – A77 cores while performing similar tasks.

Instead of looking at the Cortex A78 in terms of its peak performance output, consider the fact that a Cortex A78 core running at 2.1 GHz consumes up to 50 percent less power than a Cortex A77 core running at 2.3GHz.

#phones    #CPU    #vendors    #Qualcomm   

Today, ARM detailed its new high – end CPU core designs that will be used by chipset vendors in the upcoming smartphone flagships.

An ARM representative noted that while a licensee like Qualcomm builds its Snapdragon smartphone processors on ARM — even branding its own CPU cores as Kryo–the company typically discloses exactly which ARM cores they’re built upon.

In terms of CPU core architectures, from 2021, every major mobile chip vendor of note will use ARM’s stock CPU IP ( as Samsung System LSI has given up on its Exynos M custom cores ).

ARM has today unleashed its latest mobile chip solutions that will make their way to a majority of 2021’s flagship phones.

Lastly, the report claims that the phone will have a side – mounted fingerprint scanner that we have seen with a few other phones as well.

#peak    #announced    #generation   

It brings 30 percent peak performance improvements over Arm Cortex – A77 CPU and 22 % over the just – announced Cortex – A78 core.

Then there’s the ARM Cortex – X1, which ARM is promising will deliver 30 percent peak performance over the prior Cortex – A generation.

The Cortex – X1 has a 30 % higher peak performance than the Cortex – A77 and is 23 % faster than the new Cortex – A78 at integer calculations.

ARM says the Cortex – X1 offers 30 percent more peak single – core performance than the previous Cortex – A generation — a bit more than the 20-percent improvement offered by the Cortex – A78 in general.

While the Cortex – A78 seems relatively tame in its performance goals, today’s biggest announcement is the far more aggressive Cortex – X1.

#program    #Custom    #partners   

The Cortex – X1 was designed within the frame of a new program at Arm, which the company calls the Cortex – X Custom Program .

Cortex – X1 is a result of the CXC program in which ARM makes custom CPU cores in collaboration with its partners.

ARM calls the new program the Cortex – X Custom and its first chip designed for this effort is the Cortex – X1.

As per ARM, the Cortex – X1 CPU marks the beginning of a new Cortex – X Custom program that will allow partner brands to work with ARM’s team for designing custom CPUs based on their demand.

Arm has created a new Cortex – X Custom ( CXC ) program to allow CPU manufacturers closer cooperation with Arm’s engineers to deliver chips tailored to the needs of the customers.

#power    #compared    #deliver   

Cortex – A78 delivers 20 % extra performance compared to Cortex – A77 at the same power budget ( one Watt ), but peak performance is about 7 % faster, and machine learning performance is basically the same.

However it can also deliver 50-percent energy savings, Arm says, when delivering the same level of performance as that Cortex – A77.

Meanwhile at an ISO – performance comparison, the A78 would be able to halve the power and energy consumption compared to a 2.3GHz A77 on N7.

When compared on the same TDP the Cortex – A78 can offer 20 % more processing while consuming the same amount of power or 50 % less consumption for the same CPU performance.

At the same peak performance point the A77 was able to achieve, the new A78 would use up 36 % less power.

#Ethos    #efficiency    #s   

The new NPU also delivers up to twice the peak performance of Ethos N77, 25 % better performance efficiency, and 40 % greater DRAM bandwidth efficiency.

The company is promising that the Cortex – A78 will deliver 20 percent greater sustained performance over the prior generation; the Mali – G78, 25 percent better overall performance; and the Ethos – N78, 25 percent more performance efficiency.

The Ethos – N78 NPU supports up to 90 different configurations with performance ranging from 1 TOPS to 10 TOPS, and customizable area ( inferences / s / mm2 ), throughput ( inferences / s ) and average DRAM bandwidth ( GB / s ).

Ethos – N78 is a neural networking processor that compared with the Ethos – N77 delivers greater on – device ML capabilities and up to 25 % more performance efficiency.

#Apple    #series    #designs    #chips   

Qualcomm’s Snapdragon chips and Apple’s A – series chips have different structures and performance but they’re all based on Arm’s designs.

Even Apple uses ARM’s architecture to design processors for iPhones and iPad, but the company uses heavily modified designs rather than using stock ARM CPUs.

For the first time since 2013 and the Apple A7, ARM will be able to get close to Apple’s A – series chips in terms of peak performance.

Apple’s A – series chips are big and wide, as the decode width of all A – series chips since the A11 has been 7-wide, which is wider than even desktop CPU architectures.

With the announcement of the Duo, ARM is taking serious swings at the likes of Apple’s A – series bionic processors.

#Intel    #AMD    #SoC   

Going by ARM’s performance claims, processors that use Cortex – X1 CPU cores would be able to offer performance that’s in the same ballpark as that of Apple’s A13 Bionic SoC.

What’s really shocking here is how close Arm would be getting to Intel and AMD’s current best desktop systems in terms of performance.

The next generation of mobile SoCs, at least the ones using Cortex A78 cores, seem to promise slightly improved performance, but significantly better power efficiency.

In March, 2015, Nvidia released the Tegra X1 SoC, which has four A57 cores running at a maximum of 2 GHz.

The performance bump of an X1 system would be extremely competitive here, essentially being 37 % faster than a Snapdragon 865 SoC today.

#cycle    #dispatch    #branch    #increasing    #bandwidth   

On the mid – core, Arm here again talks about increasing the dispatch bandwidth in terms of Mops or instructions per cycle, increasing it by 33 % from 6 to 8 when comparing the X1 to the A78.

The apples – to – apples comparison here is that the new A78 increases the dispatch bandwidth to 12 uops per cycle on the dispatch end, allowing for a wider execution core which houses some new capabilities.

On the diagram, here we see Arm slightly changing its descriptions on the dispatch stage, disclosing a dispatch bandwidth of 6 macro – ops ( Mops ) per cycle, whereas last year the company had described the A77 as dispatching 10 uops.

Last year, the Cortex – A77 had introduced as secondary branch execution unit in the back – end, however the actual branch unit on the front – end still only resolved a single branch per cycle.

#generation    #company    #designs    #provides   

The consistent improvements from generation to generation of designs from Arm have allowed the company and their partners to dominate the global mobile market.

Arm provides chip designs that these companies and others use to power virtually every single smartphone in existence around the world.

Arm says they provide the largest computing ecosystem for next – generation mobile solutions, specifically those that will operate in a 5 G era.

Because of that focus on efficiency ARM’s designs were perfect for battery – powered smartphones, and the company ended up in almost every handset sold.

#structures    #efficiency    #power   

Arm explains that in any OOO – core these are quite power – hungry features, and the designers have made some good power efficiency improvements in these structures, although not detailing any specifics of the changes.

The explanation here is that larger window sizes generally do not deliver a good return on investment when scaling up in size, and the goal of the A78 is to maximize efficiency.

Overall, the Cortex – A78’s microarchitectural disclosures might sound surprising if the core were to be presented in a vacuum, as we’re seeing quite a lot of mentions of reduced structure sizes and overall compromises being made in order to maximize energy efficiency.

In the mid – core and execution pipelines, most of the work was done in regards to improving the area and power efficiency of the design.

#cache    #MB   

Cortex – X1 has four 128-bit NEON units, 64kB L1 cache, up to 1 MB L2 cache, and up to 8 MB L3 cache.

It can have up to 1 MB of L2 cache and up to 8 MB of L3 cache – double what the new Cortex – A78 supports.

In terms of cache sizes, the X1 supports 64kB L1 and up to 1 MB L2 cache, while the DynamIQ cluster has been upgraded to now support 8 MB of L3 for ultimate performance.

On the L2, because it’s a brand new design, Arm also took the opportunity to increase the maximum size of the cache which now doubles up to 1 MB.

We see similar scaling possibilities here, with up to 4 cores per DSU, with an L3 cache scaling up to 4 MB in Arm’s projected average target designs.

#reality    #AR    #VR    #devices    #immersion   

More intelligent devices, more immersive augmented reality ( AR ) and virtual reality ( VR ) enhancements, and significantly improved graphics performance all seem like straightforward outcomes they could enable.

Machine learning ( ML ) is essential for new augmented reality ( AR)- and virtual reality ( VR)-based smartphone applications and smart home hubs.

The company sees this device as especially useful in digital immersion experiences that will poignantly benefit from 5G — namely AR and VR.

It’s a measure of ARM’s faith in the future of AR / VR, machine learning at the edge, and devices that we don’t know we need yet.

#window    #note    #increase    #OOO   

The out – of – order window size has been increased from 160 to 224 entries, increasing the ability for the core to extract ILP.

It’s to be noted that the OOO – window here not solely refers to the ROB which has remained the same size, Arm here employs different buffers, queues, and structures which enable OOO operation, and it’s likely in these blocks where we’re seeing a reduction in capacity.

Arm has also fine – tuned the out – of – order window size of the A78, actually reducing it in comparison to the A77.

We have to note that this increase not merely refers to the store and load buffers but the whole system’s capabilities with tracking and servicing requests.

#image    #camera    #processing    #resolution   

Furthermore, the Exynos 7904 offers diverse image processing technologies such as scene adaptive color control, video image stabilization, and multi – frame image processing for sharper image and better color accuracy.

Arm’s ML ecosystem offers CPUs that provide classification, object detection, high resolution, segmentation enhancements for advanced image processing, biometric sensing, and health diagnostics applications.

The image signal processor supports single – camera resolution of up to 32-megapixels ( Mp ) and an advanced triple – camera setup that allows a number of new features.

With a multi – camera solution, user can take panoramic pictures of a beautiful scenery using wide angle camera or a closed up portrait with a bokeh effect using shallow depth of field.

#software    #companies    #quality    #products   

Inc. ( Nasdaq : SNPS ) is the Silicon to Software(tm ) partner for innovative companies developing the electronic products and software applications we rely on every day.

I ‘m stoked to see what chip companies and product companies build when they can work early and often to build silicon for the future.

Whether you’re a system – on – chip ( SoC ) designer creating advanced semiconductors, or a software developer writing applications that require the highest security and quality, Synopsys has the solutions needed to deliver innovative, high – quality, secure products.

As the world’s 15th largest software company, Synopsys has a long history of being a global leader in electronic design automation ( EDA ) and semiconductor IP and is also growing its leadership in software security and quality solutions.

#Qt    #customers    #Support    #emulator    #Creation   

Support for the emulator is limited to the Qt for Device Creation release and pre – compiled emulator images it shipped with.

Note : Support for macOS 10.10 ( or later ) with a limited functionality has been provided for some customers by Qt Consulting Services.

For Qt for Device Creation license holders, tooling is provided to customize the contents of the stack as well as to take it into desired production hardware.

If a Qt related problem is found and reproducible with the Qt libraries on either desktop or a group 1 platform then it will be investigated further by the support team.

As a reminder, that license allowed customers to collaborate early in the design phase of a new microarchitecture, and request customizations to the configurations, such as a larger re – order buffer ( ROB ), differently tuned prefetchers, or interface customizations for better integrations into the SoC designs.

Cortex X1 Cpu Part 3

#program    #custom    #partners   

Thus Arm has announced the ‘Cortex – X Custom Program ‘, which is an evolution of the ‘Built on Arm Cortex Technology Program ‘, which essentially enables licensees and partners to customise and differentiate beyond standard Arm Cortex products.

Arm Ethos – N78 neural processing unit, and the custom Cortex – X program starting with Cortex – X1, the most powerful Arm core to date.

Speaking of Cortex processors, ARM also announced that it is introducing its Cortex – X1 CPU as part of its Cortex – X program for partners.

ARM is also introducing a new customized Cortex – X program for its partners to create their own specialized Cortex CPU together with ARM for their specific purposes beyond the Cortex – A78 stock.

#process    #nm    #node   

Note that these performance increases also include the benefit of the 5 nm process node, over the 7 nm process node used on the current Cortex – A77-based SoCs.

These Cortex – A78 cores will be made out of 5 nm fabrication nodes, enabling greater performance with lower power requirements.

ARM said that a Cortex – A78 core running at 3GHz would deliver 20 percent more sustained, single – core performance than the Cortex – A77 core running at 2.6GHz, assuming 1 watt per core.

ARM claims that the Cortex – X1 core should be able to deliver 30 per cent performance gains over the Cortex A77 cores and a 23 per cent boost of the just – announced Cortex A78 core.

#generation    #CPU   

And as usual, these high – performance CPU cores can be combined with lower – performance, more energy – efficient CPU cores in the same chip.

The next generation of mobile SoCs, at least the ones using Cortex A78 cores, seem to promise slightly improved performance, but significantly better power efficiency.

Going by ARM’s performance claims, processors that use Cortex – X1 CPU cores would be able to offer performance that’s in the same ballpark as that of Apple’s A13 Bionic SoC.

Smartphone makers have a choice between using the new ARM cores to maximize performance, or to deliver better battery life with the same performance as the prior generation.

ARM has announced the next generation of smartphone processors, set to deliver up to 20 percent or greater performance than the prior generation.

#designs    #smartphones    #CPU   

The core design of the Cortex – A78 CPU is hands down our most efficient Cortex – A CPU ever designed for mobile devices, according to ARM.

While the Cortex – A78 CPU offers an iterative improvement over last year’s Cortex – A77, the Cortex – X1 CPU provides a generational leap and could help plug the performance gap between Android and iOS smartphones.

Cortex – A78 is tweaked for efficiency : unquestionably our most efficient Cortex – A CPU ever designed for mobile , according to the company.

Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 865, for example, uses partially custom versions of the ARM Cortex – A77 and Cortex – A55 designs for its Kryo 585 CPU, while Samsung’s Exynos 990 uses Cortex – A76 and Cortex – A55 CPU cores, along with a GPU Mali – G77.

#designs    #allows   

ARM wants its core designs to be used across a wider variety of applications, and that has forced ARM to invest in new core IP and designs which are less restricted when it comes to power and die area.

The X1 and its successors allow ARM to break out of its self – imposed box of providing only power – efficient processors.

Given the interest in achieving PC and console gaming – like quality on smartphones, the G78 adds support for up to 24 shader cores, but leverages a clever asynchronous power design that allows it to create high – level graphics without drawing too much power.

ARM is introducing a series of new chip designs for the coming year that the company says will bring stronger CPU, graphics, and AI performance and reduced power consumption.

#Ethos    #efficiency    #machine    #learning   

The new NPU also delivers up to twice the peak performance of Ethos N77, 25 % better performance efficiency, and 40 % greater DRAM bandwidth efficiency.

ARM also has a dedicated machine – learning core, the Ethos – N78, which it’s optimized for more efficient data movement.

Lastly, ARM is also introducing a new Ethos – N78 Neural Processing Unit ( NPU ), which promises up to 25 percent improved performance efficiency over the Ethos – N77, which should translate into better machine learning performance for mobile devices.

Finally, ARM is also introducing a new neural processing unit Ethos – N78 ( NPU ), promising up to 25 percent improved performance efficiency over the Ethos – N77, which should translate into better performance of mobile devices in machine learning.

#applications    #Development    #architecture   

As part of JetPack, NVIDIA set of developer tools that accelerate development and provide detailed information about application system power and performance, helping developers quickly optimize and tune their code.

The net result is a high performance CPU core that increases the competition between the Arm architecture and x86 architecture for a variety of applications.

Recognizing the growing interest in gaming – focused smartphones and other applications that demand even more performance, Arm decided to provide an even more performant version of their CPU core with the X1 ( it features a 30 % performance boost over the A77 ).

With a 30 % peak performance increase over Cortex – A77, it offers an even more competitive solution for flagship smartphones and large – screen devices.

#peak    #bit   

The Cortex – X1 has 30 % higher peak performance than the Cortex – A77 and is 23 % faster than the new Cortex – A78 in integer calculations.

ARM says the Cortex – X1 offers 30 percent more peak single – core performance than the previous Cortex – A generation — a bit more than the 20-percent improvement offered by the Cortex – A78 in general.

The Cortex – X1 has a 30 % higher peak performance than the Cortex – A77 and is 23 % faster than the new Cortex – A78 at integer calculations.

The DynamIQ cluster of 4x Cortex – A78 and 4x Cortex – A55 cores provides 20 % sustained performance improvements over the 4x Cortex – A77 and 4x Cortex – A55 cluster.

#demanding    #boost    #enabled    #says   

That kind of performance boost was enabled because the X1 is both bigger and more power – demanding than the A78.

This type of performance boost was enabled as the X1 is both larger and more power – demanding than the A77.

Confusingly, ARM says the A78 is speedier than the A77 while remaining in the same power envelope, which sounds like a completely fair and rational comparison – until you read the fine print.

#Mali    #GPU    #supports    #graphics   

It is accompanied by the high – end Mali – G78 GPU and the slightly less powerful Mali – G68 GPU.

Like the Mali – G77 GPU, Mali – G78 has Arm’s Valhall architecture, but is said to deliver 25 % more graphics performance.

The Mali – G78, which will deliver a 25 % increase in graphics performance relative to Mali – G77, brings support for up to 24 cores.

The company claims the GPU will deliver a 25 % increase in graphics performance compared to the current Mali – G77.

The Mali – G78 is said to offer a 25 % increase over predecessors in graphics and supports a line of 24 cores.

Alongside new CPUs, ARM has also announced a pair of new GPUs – the Mali – G78 GPU for flagships and the Mali – G68 GPU for sub – premium phones.

#segment    #demands    #market   

While the X1 isn’t intended for mainstream usage and won’t represent a particularly large segment of the market ( particularly because of its larger and more power – hungry design ), its appearance reflects the increasing diversity and segmentation of the smartphone market.

However, Tirias Research believes that the emerging Always – Connected PC ( ACPC ) segment being driven by Microsoft and Qualcomm is likely a key target for the Cortex – X1 because of its higher power budgets and performance demands.

Clearly, the company sees a growing demand for all these market sub – segments and, because of the pivotal role they play, their efforts will go a long way toward making them real.

Additionally, given its larger footprint on the die and higher power demands, it’s unlikely that an X1 core would make its way into a smartphone for now.

#cache    #cycle    #bandwidth   

Cortex – X1 has four 128-bit NEON units, 64kB L1 cache, up to 1 MB L2 cache, and up to 8 MB L3 cache.

It fetches up to five instructions per cycle, with correspondingly greater fetch bandwidth, compared to four / cycle for the A77 / A78.

On Cortex – X1, the Neon engine gets two additional pipes, doubling its compute capacity over Cortex – A78, then Cortex – X1 supports 64kbyte L1 and up to 1Mbyte L2 cache.

ARM’s Cortex – X1 offers users 2x as much L1, L2 and L3 cache as their Cortex – A78 design, and widened their decode path by 25 % to handle more instructions per cycle.

Cache bandwidth is substantially higher, with doubled available bandwidth to both L1 and L2, as well as the already – mentioned doubling of L2 capacity.

#image    #camera    #processing    #supports   

Furthermore, the Exynos 7904 offers diverse image processing technologies such as scene adaptive color control, video image stabilization, and multi – frame image processing for sharper image and better color accuracy.

The image signal processor supports single – camera resolution of up to 32-megapixels ( Mp ) and an advanced triple – camera setup that allows a number of new features.

Arm’s ML ecosystem offers CPUs that provide classification, object detection, high resolution, segmentation enhancements for advanced image processing, biometric sensing, and health diagnostics applications.

With a multi – camera solution, user can take panoramic pictures of a beautiful scenery using wide angle camera or a closed up portrait with a bokeh effect using shallow depth of field.

 

 

Amanda Fox

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